Task 1 – Market overview
An important deliverable is the final Task 1 report giving an overview of the market developments in the participating countries starting from the existing domestic hot water systems, energy use and use of hot water, toward expected future markets. Asan example a scenario for the Netherlands giving an insight in the needs for R&D with the vision on Energy Zero in 2050 from the smart market perspective in an all-electric society.
Special attention in this market overview is on:
- Definition of DHW storage capacities in relation to smart grids
- Low Temperature District Heating
- Combination with Solar Energy
- Energy Policy on Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, describes the Energy Policy and its Instruments and the consequences for hot water in the residential market. Typical specific topics are: Subsidy scheme on investments; Tax reduction scheme for investments or R&D; Policy on Energy Tariffs through taxes or tax reductions.
- Building standards/code with calculation and design models, describes the standards for Energy performance rating of buildings (Nearly Zero Energy Buildings and renovation) as well as the rating procedures for the generation of domestic hot water.
- Legislation, describes the legislation and standards for heat pumps, ranging from Installation guidelines and control, to Legionella and F-gas regulation. Are legislative processes harmonized at international level and are there enforcement procedures
- R&D Program, describes governmental programs on R&D.
Present market situation
- Building stock (numbers and ownership)
- Hot water Systems, describes the momentary market of hot water systems in the residential sector and the various types of heat pumps in this market used for making hot water.
- Statistics on hot water use, In general testing procedures are built upon tapping curves simulating the hot water use. In practice there is a great variety in water usage based upon human behaviour factors.
- Analyses of market trends In this part the reporter analyses the figures, policies, trends and technology developments and describes the market scenario’s until 2020 – 2030. Is there an important growing market for domestic hot water heat pumps and what are the challenges and/or barriers in that market?
Brands and Associations, Describes and name the brands of heating appliances and the Associations
In all this there is a strong relation with other Annexes in topics like: Smart Grids; Renovation of Multi Family Buildings; Hybrid Heat Pumps; Nearly Zero Energy Buildings and District Heating.
An efficient domestic hot water system can be based upon a high performance heat pump. However, the overall system efficiency depends on more than the efficiency of the generator alone. The benefits of an energy efficient generation device like a heat pump can be nullified by poor system integration and large storage or distribution losses. The overall system efficiency is a key point in the development of a Carbon Zero society with a smart energy infrastructure. This makes the choices for the efficient heating of domestic hot water for new buildings and renovation a challenge. Many concepts are still based on the traditional method of installation. For the Nearly Zero Energy new building, the placing of the heat generator can be non-traditional next to the kitchen and / or close to the bathroom. This has a strong relation with the work under HPT-Annex 49.
In the case of the renovation of existing buildings, being the largest market, such a solution is less feasible, and standardized renovation packages should be developed, where some of these are already realized with good examples. For Multi Family Buildings, which is the focus of HPT-Annex 50, the solution can be more complex with existing collective systems for domestic hot water. The replacement of these collective systems by individual domestic hot water heat pumps or semi collective booster heat pumps is one of the many options under survey in the Annex.
In densely populated areas District heating is one of the options often proposed with the 4th Generation in mind. In fact the same option for Multi Family Buildings exist here with a number of examples already given in presentations from typical District Heating countries like Finland. The relation is in this case with HPT-Annex 47.
Other combinations with air-conditioning-systems or solar thermal systems and solar photo-voltaic systems are a possible extension for Annex 46, which is in discussion. The combination with air-conditioning will be an attention point in the new HPT Annex, while the combination with Solar energy is an interesting marketing topic taken into account in Annex 46, broadening the scope and importance of the Annex.
Storage of hot water is one of the basics of a domestic hot water heat pumps, therewith being an important option in a smart grid approach.
Non participating countries
For the Task 1 report information from other non-participating countries is collected, partly from other Annexes.